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  1. http://www.chapalalaw.com/the-long-arm-of-the-us-law-and-expats/ The long arm of the US Law and Expats Many people each year decide to move from the US to live in a different country for family, work or other reasons. Many people also erroneously assume that just because they are not located physically within the United States that US Federal Laws do not apply to them. The United States has many laws that apply to citizens living within its territory and abroad. Some common situations that people could find themselves in and be subject to sanctions are: • Having a foreign bank account with over $10,000US / $50,000US and not disclosing it (FATCA / FBAR). • Bringing a computer and / or software from the US without checking to see if there are export restrictions. • Bringing your US plated car to Mexico when you move. • Bringing guns, scopes, weapon parts or your old military flak jacket with you (ITAR). • People traveling for the purposes of having sex with minors. • Doing business with someone on the OFAC list, merely renting a property without checking landlord or address. • Bribing public officials in order to get business deals done (FCPA). • Renewing your passport abroad and not declaring that you have acquired Mexican nationality or you get a job in the government. A non-exhaustive list of laws US Citizen are subject to while living outside US is as follows: If you have foreign bank accounts then the below part may apply to you FATCA / FBAR http://www.irs.gov/Businesses/Corporations/Foreign-Account-Tax-Compliance-Act-FATCA The provisions commonly known as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) became law in March 2010. • FATCA targets tax non-compliance by U.S. taxpayers with foreign accounts • FATCA focuses on reporting: • By U.S. taxpayers about certain foreign financial accounts and offshore assets • By foreign financial institutions about financial accounts held by U.S. taxpayers or foreign entities in which U.S. taxpayers hold a substantial ownership interest • The objective of FATCA is the reporting of foreign financial assets; withholding is the cost of not reporting. http://www.irs.gov/Businesses/Comparison-of-Form-8938-and-FBAR-Requirements The new Form 8938 filing requirement does not replace or otherwise affect a taxpayer’s obligation to file FinCEN Form 114 (Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts). Individuals must file each form for which they meet the relevant reporting threshold. Exportation of Computers and / or Software https://www.bis.doc.gov/index.php/regulations/commerce-control-list-ccl A key in determining whether an export license is needed from the Department of Commerce is knowing whether the item you intend to export has a specific Export Control Classification Number (ECCN). The ECCN is an alpha-numeric code, e.g., 3A001, that describes the item and indicates licensing requirements. All ECCNs are listed in the Commerce Control List (CCL) (Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 of the EAR) which is available on the Government Printing Office website. The CCL is divided into ten broad categories, and each category is further subdivided into five product groups. Taking your vehicle out of the US you will be subject to the below rules: http://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Exporting%20Vehicles%20From%20the%20United%20States%20%28Census%20Bureau%29%20.pdf The U.S. Census Bureau revised it’s regulations on March 14, 2013. One of the changes was that used self-propelled vehicles must be filed in the AES 72 hours prior to export, no matter the value or country of ultimate destination. This change became enforceable October 3, 2014. You do not need to file if you are temporarily visiting the U.S., Canada or Mexico with your vehicle. ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations) https://www.pmddtc.state.gov/regulations_laws/itar.html The Department of State is responsible for the export and temporary import of defense articles and services governed by 22 U.S.C. 2778 of the Arms Export Control Act (“AECA”; see the AECA Web page) and Executive Order 13637. The International Traffic in Arms Regulations (“ITAR,” 22 CFR 120-130) implements the AECA. The ITAR is available from the Government Printing Office (GPO) as an annual hardcopy or e-document publication as part of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and as an updated e-document. Extraterritorial Sexual Exploitation Of Children http://www.justice.gov/criminal-ceos/extraterritorial-sexual-exploitation-children The extraterritorial sexual exploitation of children is the act of traveling to a foreign country and engaging in sexual activity with a child in that country. Federal law prohibits an American citizen or resident to travel to a foreign country with intent to engage in any form of sexual conduct with a minor (defined as persons under 18 years of age). It is also illegal to help organize or assist another person to travel for these purposes. This crime is a form of human trafficking, also referred to as child sex tourism. Convicted offenders face fines and up to 30 years of imprisonment. OFAC – Office of Foreign Assets Control http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Pages/default.aspx The US government posts a blacklist of terrorist and criminal organizations and their affiliates. http://www.treasury.gov/…/sanct…/SDN-List/Pages/default.aspx US citizens can be subject to sanctions for doing business with these individuals and groups. I downloaded the list for Jalisco and made it a pdf file. You can get in trouble by renting a commercial space from a prohibited entity or doing business with them, better check and be safe. You may be surprised at the addresses as they may be places you know. Buying a taco from someone on the list may be one thing, signing a 5 year lease and investing in tenant improvements may be another where there will be more severe financial consequences. The Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) of the US Department of the Treasury administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions based on US foreign policy and national security goals against targeted foreign countries and regimes, terrorists, international narcotics traffickers, those engaged in activities related to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and other threats to the national security, foreign policy or economy of the United States. Here is a pdf file made from a search in September 2015 of the prohibited persons and entities for the State of Jalisco, Mexico. http://www.chapalalaw.com/SDN2015.pdf FCPA – Foreign Corrupt Practices Act – http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt-practices-act The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, 15 U.S.C. §§ 78dd-1, et seq. (“FCPA”), was enacted for the purpose of making it unlawful for certain classes of persons and entities to make payments to foreign government officials to assist in obtaining or retaining business. Specifically, the anti-bribery provisions of the FCPA prohibit the willful use of the mails or any means of instrumentality of interstate commerce corruptly in furtherance of any offer, payment, promise to pay, or authorization of the payment of money or anything of value to any person, while knowing that all or a portion of such money or thing of value will be offered, given or promised, directly or indirectly, to a foreign official to influence the foreign official in his or her official capacity, induce the foreign official to do or omit to do an act in violation of his or her lawful duty, or to secure any improper advantage in order to assist in obtaining or retaining business for or with, or directing business to, any person. Since 1977, the anti-bribery provisions of the FCPA have applied to all U.S. persons and certain foreign issuers of securities. With the enactment of certain amendments in 1998, the anti-bribery provisions of the FCPA now also apply to foreign firms and persons who cause, directly or through agents, an act in furtherance of such a corrupt payment to take place within the territory of the United States. The FCPA also requires companies whose securities are listed in the United States to meet its accounting provisions. See 15 U.S.C. § 78. These accounting provisions, which were designed to operate in tandem with the anti-bribery provisions of the FCPA, require corporations covered by the provisions to (a) make and keep books and records that accurately and fairly reflect the transactions of the corporation and ( devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. Things You Should Keep in Mind if Becoming a Mexican Citizen Expatriating acts and notifications when you renew your US Passport. Check out the link at the end, also if you ever read the fine print on the US Passport applications it requires that you disclose that you acquired another nationality by attaching an explanatory statement, it also mentions that the IRS will be notified that you are living abroad. The signature page part states “I am a citizen or non-citizen national of the United States and have not, since acquiring U.S. citizenship or nationality, performed any of the acts listed under “Acts or Conditions” on page four of the instructions of this application (unless explanatory statement is attached).” Under other Acts or Conditions ” I have not, since acquiring United States citizenship/nationality, been naturalized as a citizen of a foreign state; taken an oath or made an affirmation or other formal declaration of allegiance to a foreign state; entered or served in the armed forces of a foreign state; accepted or performed the duties of any office, post, or employment under the government of a foreign state or political subdivision thereof…” Also under Federal Tax Law disclosures “The U.S. Department of State must provide your SSN and foreign residence information to the U.S. Department of Treasury.” http://travel.state.gov/content/travel/en/legal-considerations/us-citizenship-laws-policies/citizenship-and-dual-nationality.html
  2. I have updated the driving guide for 2014. This version is the state version as the federal laws have changed extensively so I will make a separate federal driving guide and publish it within 2 weeks or so. Please check out this new update and give me your comments. http://www.chapalalaw.com/Driving.pdf
  3. The SAT blacklist is out. SAT (Servicio de Administración Tributaria), Mexico's Tax Agency is delivering their promise to make public a list of people and companies who are unable to be located as well as who have tax debts and also companies who sell fake facturas or are involved with money laundering (Articles 69 and 69-B of the Federal Tax Code (Código Fiscal De La Federación). Why should this interest you? Well if a company has tax debt then there could be a lien on their property so they may not have the right to dispose of the property. Your ability to deduct an expense on your taxes may be limited if a company is a known seller of fake facturas and you will have 15 days once the company's name is published to respond to SAT and prove that you actually received the goods and services listed on the factura. It is a crime to issue, sell or use facturas from companies who are a sham, defined as having no employees or equipment to be able to provide the goods or services listed on their facturas. Lastly, people on the list can be involved with money laundering so there may be new burdens on people and to companies to consult the list as now they have a way of checking who they are doing business with. Why get involved with the bad guys if there is a way to check first? Better to check than have your property seized later and argue that you didn't know about the way to check up on people and businesses before working with them. https://siat.sat.gob.mx/PTSC/index.jsp?opcion=4
  4. 6 Big Mistakes People Make in Mexican Lawsuits It is 8:00am and you are drinking your morning coffee and there is a knock at the door. Jehovah's Witnesses? That neighbor wanting to borrow a cup of sugar? Who could it be? Oh it is Spencer... but wait... there are police are there and a bunch of Mexican guys in suits as well as a tow truck. What is going on? Would you refuse to come out? Would you come out to find out what was going on, then remember you owe money to a hospital or person and then run back inside and slam the door and hide? That could cost you your door as many court orders for embargos have orders to enter forcefully and if not and you want to hide inside then the plaintiff's attorney will just apply for such an order and break in to serve you within a few weeks. That’s mistake number 1. As a Mexican attorney (with my cédula profesional), litigator, and official court translator, I have accompanied court officials on many different court procedures involving foreigners. It’s been my experience that most foreigners don’t know how the Mexican legal system works. And when that’s compounded by being represented by bad attorneys, who don’t prepare their clients well or monitor the strict timelines involved, many foreigners don’t get good results as defendants in a lawsuit, or even plaintiffs for that matter. To try to raise awareness a little, I’ve developed a list of common mistakes people make and information so that people know what to expect in civil litigation as well as know what their attorneys should be doing. If you owe someone money (in a tenant/landlord or hospital promissory note dispute, for example,) and they decide to file a lawsuit, one of the first things that happens in Mexico is that the plaintiff (the one you owe money to) can get a “pre-judgment right to attach” order (called an embargo) to secure collateral from you for the value of what they say you owe them well actually up to 3 times the amount in dispute. The reason for that is so you won’t get rid of your assets and plead poverty if you lose the suit. When you get served with the lawsuit papers at your door, the server (called a notifier in Mexico), usually accompanied by the police, plaintiff's attorney and a tow truck to get your car or a truck to take seized items, has a right to enter your house or to force entry as set out in the courts order admitting the lawsuit and approving the embargo, and they will not pay for damages (unless at the end you won the suit). The court personnel conducting the procedure should also be accompanied by a court authorized and appointed translator if you don't speak the Spanish language well enough to understand the legal issues of what is going on. If there isn't, you can appeal the lawsuit later, and get it kicked out where they would reset the case to the time where you were served. Not knowing this is mistake number 2. Once there, the court execution secretary will probably ask what property you want to place for collateral. That could be your TV, your jewelry, your car, your house—anything the plaintiff knows you have of value. If you stutter, refuse or don't tell them then the plaintiff's attorney may choose which items as defendants gets the first opportunity and if they refuse then they lose that right. They can either take the merchandise with them, or notify you that the property is collateral in the lawsuit and cannot be disposed of and you will be the judicial depository with criminal penalties if you dispose of the property. But you don’t have to accept that. That’s mistake number 3. You have the right to decide what can be embargoed. Do they want to take your car because you owe someone 5,000 pesos? Tell them they can embargo the TV, instead. You should also be aware that there are legal exclusions to what can be embargoed: basic necessities—such as tools of your trade and home furnishings among other items—cannot be taken. At this point, you’ll probably have panicked and called your lawyer, who says he’ll be right over. That usually doesn’t work. First, the notifier or court execution secretary is not going to wait around for any period of time nor will they want to argue with some lawyer who may or may not know what he is talking about and who will not be able to change or stop what is happening. He wants to get the merchandise written, noted and / or loaded up and go. Second, no lawyers will show up in the 5 minutes they said they'd arrive and the court will not wait. So, what’s your best bet? If you have the money the person says you owe, pay it on the spot, show receipts that it was paid and if you give cash or a check and make sure you get a receipt signed by the attorney for the plaintiff. You can always file a lawsuit of your own to get the money back, if it’s worth it to you but some attorneys have been known to play games with items and hide them while they file appeals to pressure defendants into accepting a settlement. If you don’t have the money, and if you’ve agreed to have something embargoed (especially if they take it away), take a photo of it first to make sure you get back exactly what they took (if you win the lawsuit). All property taken or signaled in the embargo will be listed in detail on the written statement made by the court execution secretary and you will receive a copy. The paper you’ve been served will state the date by which you (your attorney) has to file a response to the suit, which will be 5 days for summary cases [landlord tenant often falls under this category] and 8 days for regular cases under Jalisco State law and causes of action and 8 days for executive action [these are the most common for collection of pagares or promissory notes] s, 9 for oral trials and 15 for regular mercantile suits under the Federal Commerce Code, remember all days start the day after service and are court business days. This is a much shorter period of time than north of the border, where the norm is 30 days and where your time to respond is the later of the 30 days period or when the opposing party file a request to enter default with the court. You will want to gather all the evidence and witnesses you can to defend yourself during the short amount of time you have to respond to list them in the response. Not doing this is mistake number 4. No delays of time are granted and failing to file a response within the time permitted by law will have you be in default and all the allegations made against you will be presumed true. If the time to respond has passed and the other side has not requested the court take your default, the court would still reject any response after the statutory time limits as untimely. Also in most cases you must list evidence and witnesses known to you in your response as any evidence offered after making your written response may be rejected by the court or objected to by the other party. When a hearing is subsequently scheduled, make sure your attorney takes the time to prepare you and your witnesses properly. This doesn’t happen in a surprisingly large number of cases. The defendant and the witnesses go into the hearing cold, and are overwhelmed or confused by the proceedings and by the kinds of questions being asked. The party or witness needs to know what the issues in dispute are so they can reasonably predict the questions they will be asked. People who do not speak Spanish will have the right to have a translator appointed by the court present to translate as well as read to them at the end the record made of the hearing. The party offering the evidence pays the translators fees. This is mistake number 5 that people often make. When the hearing day comes, if you’re late (even 10 minutes), you will not be able to have that evidence as part of the court record from which the judge will issue a ruling and the plaintiff can win the suit as you will have less evidence to bolster your case. That’s mistake number 6. Almost everything in Mexico runs late except the court system. If you arrive on time, but your witnesses don’t, you will lose their testimony. There’s no make-up time or delays save for a medical emergency. So, when the judge eventually decides on the case, if there is little or no evidence, the opposing side may win if they met their evidentiary burden. These are the most common mistakes people make when they have to defend themselves in a lawsuit. It’s important for people to know their rights and how the legal system in Mexico can work for them or against them. Here is a list of most of the procedures people will have with the Mexican courts as a party or affected third party Emplazamiento - This is where the notifier serves the lawsuit on the defendant. You will be asked to identify yourself when they arrive at your door as they wouldn´t want to divulge personal information to third parties nor serve the wrong person. You are under no obligation to give them your ID nor sign anything although being uncooperative in the process may cost you more time and money in the end as well as line the pockets of the attorneys. If upon first visiting your home you are not there and someone is there, the notifier will leave a citatorio or rquest to be there the next day and if you are not, then they may legally serve papers on whomever is at your home whether it be a family member or someone working there and then the clock starts ticking. If you are there then this is not the time to argue your case as any response and evidence and defenses must be in the proper written format and timely presented to the court. Notificacion - This is where the notifier notifies a person about some court resolution that may affect them. Embargo - This is where they come to ask you to pay a debt, then if not paid they proceed to designate property as collateral or levy or seize it and then after serve you with the lawsuit giving you the 5 or 8 days to respond and then they serve you with the suit (see emplazamiento above). Hearings: Ratificacon de la Solicitud - For mutual divorces where the parties acknowledge the request for divorce they submitted to the court. Avenimiento - This is where the judge or conciliation secretary asks the parties if there is any way to salvage their marriage and confirms they really want to get a divorce. Conciliacion - This is where the court secretary ask the plaintiff to make a settlement offer to the defendant and to see if the defendant accepts and then asks the defendant to make a settlement offer to the plaintiff and see if the plaintiff accepts, if neither party accepts than the court asks the parties if they wish to continue with the judicial process. Testimonial - This is where a party presents 2 witnesses to support one or many points in their lawsuit or may be used to have 2 people establish that 2 names listed for a person, i.e. Robert Smith and Bob Smith are one in the same person. Confesional - This is where a party to the case is asked questions by the opposing side. These are most akin to request for admissions in US discovery and if an answer is not clear or an unequivocal denial or evasive then the question is deemed admitted. Others: Separacion de Personas - This is what would be known as a "kick out" order in the US where 2 parties live under one roof and one has filed a criminal or civil complaint against the other and the offended party applies to the court to force the other one to leave the residence, they usually are only able to bring a suitcase of clothes, the judge and court secretary will usually both be there as well as the police. Lectura del Testamento - This is where a will is read with the heirs present where the court declares the validity of the will, the executor and what each heir is entitled to receive in the will. Ratificacon de la firma - For any document presented to the court substantially affecting their rights or settling a case, they want to make sure that the person really signed the document so there are 2 options, sign in front of a notary or bring the signed document and have a mini hearing in front of the court secretary where the signing party admits to signing the document. Lic. Spencer Richard McMullen, Abogado y Perito Traductor [Cédula Fed. #7928026, Estatal #114067] Perito Traductor autorizado por el Consejo de la Judicatura del Estado de Jalisco, mediante Boletín Judicial número 76 de fecha 22 DE ABRIL DEL 2013 Thanks to Lisa Jorgensen for transcribing my ramblings into a coherent form. Link to article http://mexicoexpatpress.com/issue/july/article/6-big-mistakes-people-make-in-mexican-lawsuits
  5. Hello I am Luis Beltran and i just want to share with this incredible community. an article that i've published on a magazine Nevada Lawyer back in 2011. only for you guys to know some general differences between countries. Luis Beltran, a 22-year-old law student from Mexico, spent his summer as a law intern in Reno, Nevada. He came to the United States as a 2011 Rotary New Generations Exchange student. He interned at Silverman-Decaria and Kentleman, Chtd., and Holland & Hart law firms. Mr. Beltran is a 3rd year law student at the Universidad Del Valle de Mexico in Guadalajara. I became interested in the United States legal system because of the presence of Americans I observed in Mazatlan. I realized that Americans desirous of opening a business or buying a real estate in Mexico must deal with the Mexican laws and legal procedures. With my preparation, knowledge of both languages and law systems, I will be able to assist in solving their problems. I have found many similarities and differences while comparing the Mexican legal system and the American legal system. The essential difference between the two legal systems is that Mexico is a "civil law" country, while the United States is a "common law" country. The differences start with law school education. In Mexico, law school begins right after high school. This means students need to decide at a very early age what field of study they will follow. Once in law school, it will take us 5 years to graduate. In Mexico it’s very common that after law school, students continue their studies and obtain a Masters in Law or a doctoral degree in a special area of the law. After graduating, we don’t take a bar exam nor belong to any state bar to be able to work. We just need to have our diploma and fill a form necessary to obtain our license, called “Cedula Federal” This license gives us faculty to litigate in any part of Mexico. In Mexico, for a contract to be valid, you only need the existence of an agreement between the parties involved. The consideration is not a requirement. In some cases, Mexican lawyers have to have the assistance of another lawyer called “Notario Publico” (Public Notary) in order to fill various legal contracts (deeds, wills, trusts, etc.) A public notary in Mexico is a lawyer with college education who has the authority to certify documents or to give official recognition to documents and certificates. The Public Notary authenticates facts that become irrefutable. The Mexican Notario Publico is responsible for the legality of the content of the document while the US Notary Public only certifies the identity of the signer. Another difference is that almost all of the proceedings in Mexico are written. Although some of these can be resented orally, all arguments, depositions and testimonies are typewritten. Law and Court clerks transcribe all facts and information and then all is attached to a record numbered chronologically. All the statements to be attached to the record are reviewed and signed by the judge. Those records are located in a room in the court handling the case. Parties on both sides of the case have access to these records. Sometimes one of the parties’ or judge’s presence is not necessary while taking a statement because everything is recorded on a document. If there were any disputes the judicial system applies a mechanism to challenge the validity of the statement. There are also a few differences in criminal law. For example, in Mexico you are guilty until proven innocent, opposite to the American way. There are no juries in Mexico, a fundamental right in the United States based on the 7th amendment. Also, in Mexico the decision or sentence is filed only by the judge. Such sentence is based on a criminal code that stipulates a range of sentences for each offense. There is no death penalty. In the area of labor and employment, Mexican law gives workers rights and protections that businesses in the United States are not required to provide to their employees. For example: employers are not permitted to fire employees without a cause; each year all employees receive a holiday bonus worth 15 days of work at the end of the year; employees participate in earnings of their employers; and medical care is a right guaranteed by the constitution. Health care must be provided to all Mexican workers through the IMSS (medical care institution) which is partially subsidized by the government. In Mexico we also have a summary proceeding called “Amparo.” This proceeding guarantees the individual’s rights in the event that any authority tries to violate them. One of the biggest differences regarding constitutional rights is that when in America a law is declared unconstitutional, that change applies universally to all the people. In Mexico, the law declared unconstitutional will apply solely to the party which filed the amparo. A common misconception is that in Mexico people don’t have the right to own arms, and that all of them are illegal. This is not true. The Mexican constitution allows citizens to own fire arms (legally) in their homes for security. Gun-control laws, however, are very strict and make owning a gun it very difficult (especially a high caliber gun). I have enjoyed my time in Reno, Nevada and I hope to return some day to exchange more legal and professional knowledge. BY LUIS BELTRAN
  6. Today I attended a conference on Practical Applications of the New immigration Law at the Corporate Attorneys Bar Association (ANADE) of which I will be their newest member. The keynote speaker was Lic. Doris Gabriela Michel Sinsel with whom we have dealt with various times at immigration in Guadalajara. She spoke on the new law and there was probably an hour of questions and answers between the other attorneys and her going over some of the fine points of application of the new law. While regurgitating everything here might not be productive, I will comment on a few items that were brought out that might be relevant to the broadest audience of readers here. One important item is that if they find that you left or entered as a tourist while your papers are in process then they will cancel your papers in process so for those who do not want to spend the time or money for a travel letter, beware of being penny wise and pound foolish. She acknowledged that the new system is more expensive and slower and that there still is a backlog with one company manufacturing cards nationally. When immigration notifies you that they need an item they will usually give you 10 days to provide them with that item and if you do not do so then your file will be canceled. There are ways to get an extension if the request is provided in the proper format and in writing and timely but then the Federal Administrative Law only allows them 1/2 the original time period maximum for the extension so 5 days, prior they were giving up to 30 days. There are some ways around this and a good attorney will know how to buy time. GREAT NEWS! They now will be honoring prior year cumulatively on FM2 and FM3 to apply to jump ahead to permanente without financials. This is being applied this week, it might take longer to verify prior years on an FM3 if you have only had your FM2 for lets say a year. All employers need to register with immigration and they will start requesting to see registrations, even for self employed people so do it now to not have a problem where your failure to do so makes them request you do so within 10 days and of course if it takes longer then you will have your case dismissed and have to regularize paying additional fees and fines. And last but not least.... the explanation why so many permanent people have been in limbo. So what we were told when we requested a hearing Monday was true that files sent to Guadalajara and stalled will be returned to Chapala for decision BUT there is no way in their computer system to send the files back to Chapala, only receive them for tracking, they hope to work this bug out and resolve all stalled files within 15 days. I brought along the list of our clients who were stalled in the system and their file numbers to have her look into our people tomorrow. All the prior information is from the attorney for the Guadalajara office. she also commented that one of the heads there quit so they are short staffed. Chapala had a meeting today for the attorneys and facilitators, my associate attorney went, they want complete files in Chapala and will start rejecting incomeplete files so you have been warned, that was pretty much the gist of it. They are still working out the kinks in the new policy of allowing the local Chapala office to do more including approve permanente applications and doing the fingerprints for them. Seminar titles in Spanish El Colegio Asociación Nacional de Abogados de Empresa de Jalisco A.C. Lineamientos Generales De Trámites Migratorios - Parte Práctica de la Nueva Reforma Migratoria.
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